Best of the Week
Most Popular
1. Market Decline Will Lead To Pension Collapse, USD Devaluation, And NWO - Raymond_Matison
2.Uber’s Nightmare Has Just Started - Stephen_McBride
3.Stock Market Crash Black Swan Event Set Up Sept 12th? - Brad_Gudgeon
4.GDow Stock Market Trend Forecast Update - Nadeem_Walayat
5.Gold Significant Correction Has Started - Clive_Maund
6.British Pound GBP vs Brexit Chaos Timeline - Nadeem_Walayat
7.Cameco Crash, Uranium Sector Won’t Catch a break - Richard_Mills
8.Recession 2020 Forecast : The New Risks & New Profits Of A Grand Experiment - Dan_Amerman
9.Gold When Global Insanity Prevails - Michael Ballanger
10.UK General Election Forecast 2019 - Betting Market Odds - Nadeem_Walayat
Last 7 days
Beware Gold Stocks Downside - 13th Dec 19
Fed Says No Interest Rate Hikes In 2020. What About Gold? - 13th Dec 19
The ABC’s of Fiat Money - 13th Dec 19
Why Jo Swinson and the Lib Dems LOST Seats General Election 2019 - Sheffiled Hallam Result - 13th Dec 19
UK General Election 2019 BBC Exit Poll Forecast Accuracy Analysis - 12th Dec 19
Technical Analysis Update: Tadawul All Share Index (TASI) - Saudi Arabia ETF (KSA) - 12th Dec 19
Silver Miners Pinpoint the Precious Metals’ Outlook - 12th Dec 19
How Google Has Become the Worlds Biggest Travel Company - 12th Dec 19
UK Election Seats Forecasts - Tories 326, Labour 241, SNP 40, Lib Dems 17 - 12th Dec 19
UK General Election 2019 Final Seats Per Party Forecast - 12th Dec 19
What UK CPI, RPI INFLATION Forecasts for General Election Result 2019 - 11th Dec 19
Gold ETF Holdings Surge… But Do They Actually Hold Gold? - 11th Dec 19
Gold, Silver Reversals, Lower Prices and Our Precious Profits - 11th Dec 19
Opinion Pollsters, YouGov MRP General Election 2019 Result Seats Forecast - 11th Dec 19
UK General Election Tory and Labour Marginal Seats Analysis, Implied Forecast 2019 - 11th Dec 19
UK General Election 2019 - Tory Seats Forecast Based on GDP Growth - 11th Dec 19
YouGov's MRP Poll Final Tory Seats Forecast Revised Down From 359 to 338, Possibly Lower? - 10th Dec 19
What UK Economy (Average Earnings) Predicts for General Election Results 2019 - 10th Dec 19
Labour vs Tory Manifesto's UK General Election Parliamentary Seats Forecast 2019 - 10th Dec 19
Lumber is about to rally and how to play it with this ETF - 10th Dec 19
Social Mood and Leaders Impact on General Election Forecast 2019 - 9th Dec 19
Long-term Potential for Gold Remains Strong! - 9th Dec 19
Stock and Financial Markets Review - 9th Dec 19
Labour / Tory Manifesto's Impact on UK General Election Seats Forecast 2019 - 9th Dec 19
Tory Seats Forecast 2019 General Election Based on UK House Prices Momentum Analysis - 9th Dec 19
Top Tory Marginal Seats at Risk of Loss to Labour and Lib Dems - Election 2019 - 9th Dec 19
UK House Prices Momentum Tory Seats Forecast General Election 2019 - 8th Dec 19
Why Labour is Set to Lose Sheffield Seats at General Election 2019 - 8th Dec 19
Gold and Silver Opportunity Here Is As Good As It Gets - 8th Dec 19
High Yield Bond and Transports Signal Gold Buy Signal - 8th Dec 19
Gold & Silver Stocks Belie CoT Caution - 8th Dec 19
Will Labour Government Spending Bankrupt Britain? UK Debt and Deficits - 7th Dec 19
Lib Dem Fake Tory Election Leaflets - Sheffield Hallam General Election 2019 - 7th Dec 19
You Should Be Buying Gold Stocks Now - 6th Dec 19
The End of Apple Has Begun - 6th Dec 19
How Much Crude Oil Do You Unknowingly Eat? - 6th Dec 19
Labour vs Tory Manifesto Voter Bribes Impact on UK General Election Forecast - 6th Dec 19
Gold Price Forecast – Has the Recovery Finished? - 6th Dec 19
Precious Metals Ratio Charts - 6th Dec 19
Climate Emergency vs Labour Tree Felling Councils Reality - Sheffield General Election 2019 - 6th Dec 19
What Fake UK Unemployment Statistics Predict for General Election Result 2019 - 6th Dec 19

Market Oracle FREE Newsletter

UK General Election Forecast 2019

U.S. Banks Exposure to the $200 trillion US Derivatives Market

Companies / Banking Stocks Sep 28, 2011 - 01:52 AM GMT

By: Sam_Chee_Kong

Companies

Best Financial Markets Analysis Article"The few who understand the system, will either be so interested from it's profits or so dependent on it's favors, that there will be no opposition from that class." Mayer Amschel Bauer Rothschild

According to the Office of the Comptroller of the currency (OCC) in their latest quarterly report on Bank Trading and Derivatives Activities for the fourth quarter of 2008,


  • The notional value of derivatives held by U.S commercial banks increased $24.5 trillion in the 4th quarter of 2008, or 14% to US 200.4 trillion due to the migration of investment bank derivatives business into the commercial banking system.
  • US commercial banks lost $9.2 billion trading in cash and derivatives instruments in the 4th quarter of 2008 and for the year they reported trading losses of US 836 million The poor results in 2008 reflect continued turmoil in financial markets, particularly in credit instruments.
  • Net current credit exposure increased 84% from the 3rd quarter to a record $800 billion and much of the decline is due to the sharp decline of interest rates in the fourth quarter
  • Derivatives contracts remain concentrated in interest rate products, which comprise 82% of total derivatives notional value. The notional value of credit derivatives decreased contracts by 2% during the quarter to $15.9 billion. Credit default swaps are 98% of total credit derivatives.

Of the $200 trillion notional amount of derivatives contracts held by U.S banks can be summarize by the following table,

Rank    Bank Name                  Total Derivatives held (in $millions)
1          JPMorgan                    $87,362,672
2          Bank of America         $38,304,564
3          Citibank                       $31,887,869
4          Goldman Sachs           $30,229,614
5.         HSBC                           $ 3,713,075
6          Other Banks                 $ 8,515,786

So, it can be deduce that the top 5 banks in the US held about 94% of the total derivatives, while the rest of the more than 1000 banks held less than 6% of the derivatives.

The following table shows the type of derivatives that make up the $200 trillions.

Type of Derivatives                 In ($Billons)
Interest Rate Swaps                 164,404
Foreign Exchange                      16,824
Equities                                        2,207
Commodities                                1,050
Credit Derivatives                     15,897
                                                  ---------
                                      Total   200,382
                                                  ---------

The table shows that the majority (about 82%) of the derivatives are interest rates based. Interest rates swaps are basically a type financial instrument where two parties agreed to exchange interest rate cash flows from a fixed to floating rate and vice versa.

It can be used as a hedging or speculative device depending on how you utilize it.

Say if you think that in the next 5 years down the road, the economy will be doing well and hence will expect the authorities to increase the interest rate so as to slow down the rate of inflation. So if you are having a floating interest rate you may reduce your risk by swapping your interest rate to a fixed rate. The amount to be swap will not change, only the duration or whether you want a fixed or floating rate will be change during the swap.  

Interest rate swaps can also be used by hedge funds or any investors for speculative purposes. Due to the differential in the interest rates, they can take advantage of the arbitrage opportunities that is available for them to make a profit. There are risks involved when you are speculating IRS , such as market and credit risk. Market risk is due to the fluctuating interest rates during the duration of the swap while credit risk may be cause by a default in any parties involved 

Another point to note is that the derivatives held by the US banks increased by $24.5 trillion to $200.4 trillion or 14% in the fourth quarter.

Instead of unwinding their speculative positions, they are adding more bets on the derivatives market. What may be the cause for the increased in the derivatives held by US banks?

Firstly, it may be due to some previous bets that may have gone wrong. In order to recover their losses quickly, the traders may be indulged in ‘Doubling the BETS’. It’s a strategy whereby traders will double their bets each time they losses because they believe eventually if one of the bets wins then they will recover all their previous losses in one go. However, when they keep doubling their bets, it will reach a point where their losses are so large that they can’t pay it off and no one wants to have anything to do with it.

To illustrate how this strategy works, say initially you lose $2 betting on even number in a blackjack table. In order to recover your $2 in your next bet, you will wager $4. This will go exponential and by the time you had your 15th loss, you will need to place a bet of $65,536 in the next round in order to win back your original $2. I have personally seen people losing 15 times straight in a blackjack table. Talk about risky business, the risk/reward ratio is just way too high. I believe this is one of the reasons why most of contracts or trades are not able to unwind and instead they just keep increasing.  

Secondly, it's all about bonuses. Bonuses are of course directly related to a company’s profit. The higher the profit the bigger the bonus. It is a normal practice in the Risk Control Departments in investment banks ‘To look the Other Way’, for some of their so called ‘Stat performer’ traders.

These traders can get away with the risk control departments guidelines for safe trading and best practices. They are able to accumulate larger than stipulated daily losses and trade way above their daily trading limits. And this is why they have the incentive of doing whatever that will bring the bonus money in. At the end of the day when the trader wins big, everyone gets a bigger bonus and when he looses, the trader will be the scapegoat.

This is what actually happened in the UBS recent $2.5 billion loss. The trader Kweku Adoboli, trades from the Delta One trading desk and as you know Delta One trading desk only handles quite low risk financial instruments like forwards, futures, swaps, equities and ETFs because most of them are hedged. Delta One remains one of the most profitable divisions in most investment banks.

According to UBS version of its investigation, it is caused by the failure of four risk control mechanism in its risk control department. In order to accumulate such a big loss in such a short period, the trader might have done the following:

  • having a huge position
  • the instrument traded must be very liquid
  • No supervision from the Risk control department
  • Trading some very risky products (most probably CHR/EUR or other cross currency trades) because the day they reported the loss coincide with the day the Swiss authorities peg its Swiss Francs to Euro at 1.20.
  • The Risk Manager is not doing his job because at the end of the day there will be a report of ALL TRADES available at the desk of the Risk manager
  • Collusion between the trader and someone above so that losses go unreported.
  • He might be engaged in trading ‘naked CDS’. Naked is Wall Street lingo for uncovered trades meaning there is no hedging for those bets and its only one way.

As for me I will say all of the above are the reasons for the UBS loss.
In the day to day operations, the Banks control the market risk in trading operations by establishing daily trading losses. Banks normally use the VaR or (Value at Risk) to specify the maximum loss at a given time horizon (normally one day) and also the confidence level at that particular time to control risk.

A VaR of $100 million and a confidence level of 99% on a trading day, indicates that a bank’s portfolio should only lose $100 million more than once in every 100 trading days in normal conditions.

The following table shows the VaR of the three largest US banks.
In ($millions)              JPMorgan        Citigroup         Bank Of America
Average VaR 2008     $196                $292                $111
Equity Capital             $166,844         $150,599         $177,052
Var/Equity                   0.12%              0.19%              0.06%

So, as you can see the VaR/Equity ratio is actually very small. If they followed the guidelines then most of them will not end up in the situation as they are now.

According to the Bank of International Settlements, total global derivatives are estimated to be more than $600 trillion as of December 2008. Heck, if just 10% of the amount of derivatives be it CDS,CDO,MBS and et al, were to go bust, it will be enough to wipe out at least half of the world’s GDP. This will likely cause a major meltdown in the global financial system and will be much more lethal than the one we had in 2008.

by Sam Chee Kong
cheekongsam@yahoo.com

    © 2011 Copyright  Sam Chee Kong - All Rights Reserved

    Disclaimer: The above is a matter of opinion provided for general information purposes only and is not intended as investment advice. Information and analysis above are derived from sources and utilising methods believed to be reliable, but we cannot accept responsibility for any losses you may incur as a result of this analysis. Individuals should consult with their personal financial advisors.


© 2005-2019 http://www.MarketOracle.co.uk - The Market Oracle is a FREE Daily Financial Markets Analysis & Forecasting online publication.


Post Comment

Only logged in users are allowed to post comments. Register/ Log in

6 Critical Money Making Rules