Most Popular
1. It’s a New Macro, the Gold Market Knows It, But Dead Men Walking Do Not (yet)- Gary_Tanashian
2.Stock Market Presidential Election Cycle Seasonal Trend Analysis - Nadeem_Walayat
3. Bitcoin S&P Pattern - Nadeem_Walayat
4.Nvidia Blow Off Top - Flying High like the Phoenix too Close to the Sun - Nadeem_Walayat
4.U.S. financial market’s “Weimar phase” impact to your fiat and digital assets - Raymond_Matison
5. How to Profit from the Global Warming ClImate Change Mega Death Trend - Part1 - Nadeem_Walayat
7.Bitcoin Gravy Train Trend Forecast 2024 - - Nadeem_Walayat
8.The Bond Trade and Interest Rates - Nadeem_Walayat
9.It’s Easy to Scream Stocks Bubble! - Stephen_McBride
10.Fed’s Next Intertest Rate Move might not align with popular consensus - Richard_Mills
Last 7 days
Friday Stock Market CRASH Following Israel Attack on Iranian Nuclear Facilities - 19th Apr 24
All Measures to Combat Global Warming Are Smoke and Mirrors! - 18th Apr 24
Cisco Then vs. Nvidia Now - 18th Apr 24
Is the Biden Administration Trying To Destroy the Dollar? - 18th Apr 24
S&P Stock Market Trend Forecast to Dec 2024 - 16th Apr 24
No Deposit Bonuses: Boost Your Finances - 16th Apr 24
Global Warming ClImate Change Mega Death Trend - 8th Apr 24
Gold Is Rallying Again, But Silver Could Get REALLY Interesting - 8th Apr 24
Media Elite Belittle Inflation Struggles of Ordinary Americans - 8th Apr 24
Profit from the Roaring AI 2020's Tech Stocks Economic Boom - 8th Apr 24
Stock Market Election Year Five Nights at Freddy's - 7th Apr 24
It’s a New Macro, the Gold Market Knows It, But Dead Men Walking Do Not (yet)- 7th Apr 24
AI Revolution and NVDA: Why Tough Going May Be Ahead - 7th Apr 24
Hidden cost of US homeownership just saw its biggest spike in 5 years - 7th Apr 24
What Happens To Gold Price If The Fed Doesn’t Cut Rates? - 7th Apr 24
The Fed is becoming increasingly divided on interest rates - 7th Apr 24
The Evils of Paper Money Have no End - 7th Apr 24
Stock Market Presidential Election Cycle Seasonal Trend Analysis - 3rd Apr 24
Stock Market Presidential Election Cycle Seasonal Trend - 2nd Apr 24
Dow Stock Market Annual Percent Change Analysis 2024 - 2nd Apr 24
Bitcoin S&P Pattern - 31st Mar 24
S&P Stock Market Correlating Seasonal Swings - 31st Mar 24
Here's a Dirty Little Secret: Federal Reserve Monetary Policy Is Still Loose - 31st Mar 24
Tandem Chairman Paul Pester on Fintech, AI, and the Future of Banking in the UK - 31st Mar 24
Stock Market Volatility (VIX) - 25th Mar 24
Stock Market Investor Sentiment - 25th Mar 24
The Federal Reserve Didn't Do Anything But It Had Plenty to Say - 25th Mar 24

Market Oracle FREE Newsletter

How to Protect your Wealth by Investing in AI Tech Stocks

Japan's kaput?!

Economics / Japan Economy Nov 05, 2014 - 01:28 PM GMT

By: Axel_Merk


Japan’s economy is down but not yet out. The world’s third largest economy won’t go quietly. Both these statements are merely my opinion, but if you believe there’s a risk that I’m right, you may want to pay attention to what the implications may be.

In determining whether a country is willing and able to pay its bills, three key dimensions to consider are:

• Can the government pay the interest on outstanding debt?
• Can the government roll over maturing debt?
• Can the government balance its books without servicing its debt

Let’s the take last item first: when you have lots of debt, do you want to beg for another loan or should you default? The reason Greece agreed to harsh terms imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) was that they couldn’t self-fund themselves. The budget before servicing debt is referred to as the primary budget balance. A country considering a default needs to be aware that the day after they default it might be difficult to get a fresh loan at palatable terms. As such, a country with a primary budget deficit has an incentive to service its debt because it will need further loans. In contrast, a highly indebted country with a primary budget surplus has an incentive to default on its debt. In Greece’s case, they now have a primary surplus; Greece is in the driver’s seat when it comes to negotiating terms on its debt loans, as they could walk away. One caveat to this is that domestic banks might collapse if they hold lots of debt of their own government.

Japan has a primary budget deficit, i.e. needs to pile on to its debt burden no matter what interest rates are. A goal set last year to eliminate the primary deficit by 2020 appears elusive now. To balance its budget before paying interest expense, Japan – quite simply – needs to either raise revenue or cut expenses. In April, Japan’s value added tax (VAT) rose from 5% to 8%; whether another rise to 10% scheduled for October 2015 will be implemented is an open question. As Europeans have learned, VAT is a powerful way to raise revenue. Except that the higher rates have also caused significant headwinds on consumption. As long as Japan has a primary deficit, it may be at the mercy of the markets.

This ‘mercy’ can be expressed in the interest rate a government has to pay. Japan’s 10-year bonds (JGBs) currently yield 0.4% per annum. Differently said, the market does not appear to be concerned about Japan’s ability to meet its future obligations – at least not according to this measure. But even as we consider dire scenarios, the biggest threat Japan may be facing is that Prime Minister Abe’s policies actually work. That’s because should growth materialize, odds are that JGB’s would sell off, increasing the cost of borrowing. That’s not a problem immediately, as not all debt matures at once. However, should much of the debt burden have to be financed at a higher rate, it may make it all but impossible to finance the deficit.

In practice, as the European debt crisis has shown, it’s not about the average cost of borrowing, but the rolling of debt. Spain, with an average maturity of about seven years for government debt, was considered very prudent in its debt management. However, during the peak of the Eurozone debt crisis, there were concerns that Spain might face trouble refinancing its debt. It didn’t matter that only a comparatively small portion of Spain’s debt needed to be refinanced. Governments – just like corporations or individuals – can face a cash squeeze.

But fear not, because Japan has a few tricks up its sleeve. The best known one is the Bank of Japan (BoJ). While the BoJ denies it is financing government deficits, it’s gobbling up an enormous number of JGBs, thereby keeping yields low. It does have the side effect that this formerly highly liquid market is experiencing a drought. But why bother, what could possibly go wrong?

The other trick Japan has up its sleeve is its $1.2 trillion Japanese government pension fund. The fund announced it would lower its allocation of domestic bonds from 60% to 35%, while doubling its domestic and international equity investments:

In the aftermath of the announcement, the yen fell sharply, while both domestic and international equity markets jumped higher. Japan wants to boost the returns on its pension fund, but may achieve quite the opposite. In the short-term, yes, both domestic and international equity prices soared. But the new allocation has only been announced, not implemented. As such, the pension fund will buy assets at elevated prices. And because Japan’s population is ageing, odds are that they will be net sellers rather than buyers over time. During the roaring markets in the U.S. in the 1990s, prevailing cooler heads cautioned that the government investing in the stock market makes little sense, as while it may boost short-term returns, future returns would likely be lower. There is no free lunch.

We consider Japan’s recent moves deeply troubling acts of desperation: In our assessment, Japan signals it wants to move its pension assets offshore as it prepares for a default:

• Japan’s pension fund dramatically lowers its allocation to government bonds. The markets don’t panic because the BoJ simultaneously steps in to buy about $60 billion worth of bonds each month (keep in mind that the U.S. economy is about 3 ½ time larger than the Japanse economy)
• By buying foreign assets, Japan is ready to debase the value of the yen further, while trying to preserve the purchasing power of those assets.
• In the run-up to Zimbabwe’s default, the country’s stock market soared; simultaneously the value of the now defunct Zimbabwe dollar imploded. It appears only logical that Japan would invest its nest egg in stocks, with an emphasis on foreign stocks. It’s logical if and only if Japan intends to debase the value of its debt.

There’s more than one way to default. The honest way is to restructure debt. The painful way is through inflation. Pundits may wonder what inflation can there possibly be when JGBs don't show inflation? We would counter with questioning what good an inflation indicator JGBs can possibly be given the Bank of Japan owns an ever-increasing amount. Something has to give. What is an investor to do? With the caveat that the following is not investment advice:

• Some opt to short JGBs. Critics have labeled this the widow-maker trade, as JGB’s have held up; indeed, when shorting bonds, one has to constantly pay (rather than receive) interest. There are some that short bonds using options. When properly executed, that strategy may yield steady losses, then possibly a major gain at some point. We don’t pursue this strategy and caution anyone to be aware of numerous risks this strategy entails, ranging from the fact that one is fighting a central bank through the use of derivatives.
• Short the yen. As we have indicated in the past, we don’t see how the yen can survive this. But be aware that foreign exchange analysts are rather frustrated with our take on this. That’s because a price target of ‘infinity’ (an infinite number of yen per dollar) is difficult to fit into any model or short- to medium- term forecasts. And clearly, the yen’s demise is unlikely to happen in a straight line. In fact, whenever the yen rallies, I get lambasted by so-called experts that the yen is still a ‘safe haven’ currency. My take is that the yen’s ability to benefit from a “flight to safety” has been directly correlated to the market’s perception of how effective Abenomics is. As policy makers double down on Mr. Abe’s policies, the yen’s safe haven characteristics may well erode further.
• Buy Japanese stocks. Printing money to buy stocks has been a boon for the Japanese market. And as Zimbabwe’s experience has shown, stocks can perform well in this environment. But Zimbabwe’s experience didn’t end well. Neither do I believe will Japan’s. Given the much higher volatility of stocks versus the currency (assuming no leverage is employed), it’s a much higher risk way of protecting from government failure. Also keep in mind that should a default become reality, it may have profound implications for Japan’s banking system, as well as Japan’s economy as a whole. No country in history has managed to keep its citizens wealthy while defaulting on its debt.
• Gold. Ironically, in the hours after the announcement of the recent initiatives by the Bank of Japan to increase its quantitative easing, as well as the change in Japan’s pension fund strategy, gold fell – not just in U.S. dollars, but also when priced in yen. A little later, gold was priced higher in yen, but still down when priced in U.S. dollar. Gold has not fared very well of late, but it may serve as a good diversifier as Japan’s economic gamble plays out.

As we have a dire view on Japan, we should add that we don’t think Japan’s problems are all that unique. There is too much debt in the U.S. and Europe. The one country where citizens are fed up with deploying central banks to cure all problems is Switzerland. We will have an in-depth discussion of Switzerland’s vote to force the Swiss National Bank to hold a minimum of 20% of its reserves in gold in an upcoming Merk Insight (to ensure you don’t miss it, sign-up to receive our free newsletters). On that note, please register for our upcoming Webinar on November 20, 2014, where we will discuss how investors can build their personal gold standard.

For more of Greenspan's comments, please review my tweets at (please follow me to instant analysis of events affecting the dollar, gold and currencies).

Axel Merk

Manager of the Merk Hard, Asian and Absolute Return Currency Funds,

Rick Reece is a Financial Analyst at Merk Investments and a member of the portfolio management

Axel Merk, President & CIO of Merk Investments, LLC, is an expert on hard money, macro trends and international investing. He is considered an authority on currencies. Axel Merk wrote the book on Sustainable Wealth; order your copy today.

The Merk Absolute Return Currency Fund seeks to generate positive absolute returns by investing in currencies. The Fund is a pure-play on currencies, aiming to profit regardless of the direction of the U.S. dollar or traditional asset classes.

The Merk Asian Currency Fund seeks to profit from a rise in Asian currencies versus the U.S. dollar. The Fund typically invests in a basket of Asian currencies that may include, but are not limited to, the currencies of China, Hong Kong, Japan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand.

The Merk Hard Currency Fund seeks to profit from a rise in hard currencies versus the U.S. dollar. Hard currencies are currencies backed by sound monetary policy; sound monetary policy focuses on price stability.

The Funds may be appropriate for you if you are pursuing a long-term goal with a currency component to your portfolio; are willing to tolerate the risks associated with investments in foreign currencies; or are looking for a way to potentially mitigate downside risk in or profit from a secular bear market. For more information on the Funds and to download a prospectus, please visit

Investors should consider the investment objectives, risks and charges and expenses of the Merk Funds carefully before investing. This and other information is in the prospectus, a copy of which may be obtained by visiting the Funds' website at or calling 866-MERK FUND. Please read the prospectus carefully before you invest.

The Funds primarily invest in foreign currencies and as such, changes in currency exchange rates will affect the value of what the Funds own and the price of the Funds' shares. Investing in foreign instruments bears a greater risk than investing in domestic instruments for reasons such as volatility of currency exchange rates and, in some cases, limited geographic focus, political and economic instability, and relatively illiquid markets. The Funds are subject to interest rate risk which is the risk that debt securities in the Funds' portfolio will decline in value because of increases in market interest rates. The Funds may also invest in derivative securities which can be volatile and involve various types and degrees of risk. As a non-diversified fund, the Merk Hard Currency Fund will be subject to more investment risk and potential for volatility than a diversified fund because its portfolio may, at times, focus on a limited number of issuers. For a more complete discussion of these and other Fund risks please refer to the Funds' prospectuses.

This report was prepared by Merk Investments LLC, and reflects the current opinion of the authors. It is based upon sources and data believed to be accurate and reliable. Opinions and forward-looking statements expressed are subject to change without notice. This information does not constitute investment advice. Foreside Fund Services, LLC, distributor.

Axel Merk Archive

© 2005-2022 - The Market Oracle is a FREE Daily Financial Markets Analysis & Forecasting online publication.

Post Comment

Only logged in users are allowed to post comments. Register/ Log in