Best of the Week
Most Popular
1. Investing in a Bubble Mania Stock Market Trending Towards Financial Crisis 2.0 CRASH! - 9th Sep 21
2.Tech Stocks Bubble Valuations 2000 vs 2021 - 25th Sep 21
3.Stock Market FOMO Going into Crash Season - 8th Oct 21
4.Stock Market FOMO Hits September Brick Wall - Evergrande China's Lehman's Moment - 22nd Sep 21
5.Crypto Bubble BURSTS! BTC, ETH, XRP CRASH! NiceHash Seizes Funds on Account Halting ALL Withdrawals! - 19th May 21
6.How to Protect Your Self From a Stock Market CRASH / Bear Market? - 14th Oct 21
7.AI Stocks Portfolio Buying and Selling Levels Going Into Market Correction - 11th Oct 21
8.Why Silver Price Could Crash by 20%! - 5th Oct 21
9.Powell: Inflation Might Not Be Transitory, After All - 3rd Oct 21
10.Global Stock Markets Topped 60 Days Before the US Stocks Peaked - 23rd Sep 21
Last 7 days
Investing in the METAVERSE Stocks Universe - 8th Dec 21
Stock Market Sentiment Speaks: I Expect 15-20% Returns For 2022 - 8th Dec 21
US Dollar Still Has the Green Light - 8th Dec 21
Stock Market Topping Process Roadmap - 8th Dec 21
The Lithium Breakthrough That Could Transform The Mining Industry - 8th Dec 21
VR and Gaming Becomes the Metaverse - 7th Dec 21
How to Read Your Smart Meter - Economy 7, Day and Night Rate Readings SMETS2 EDF - 7th Dec 21
For Profit or for Loss: 4 Tips for Selling ASX Shares - 7th Dec 21
INTEL Bargain Teck Stocks Trading at 15.5% Discount Sale - 7th Dec 21
US Bonds Yield Curve is not currently an inflationist’s friend - 7th Dec 21
Omicron COVID Variant-Possible Strong Stock Market INDU & TRAN Rally - 7th Dec 21
The New Tech That Could Take Tesla To $2 Trillion - 7th Dec 21
S&P 500 – Is a 5% Correction Enough? - 6th Dec 21
Global Stock Markets It’s Do-Or-Die Time - 6th Dec 21
Hawks Triumph, Doves Lose, Gold Bulls Cry! - 6th Dec 21
How Stock Investors Can Cash in on President Biden’s new Climate Plan - 6th Dec 21
The Lithium Tech That Could Send The EV Boom Into Overdrive - 6th Dec 21
How Stagflation Effects Stocks - 5th Dec 21
Bitcoin FLASH CRASH! Cryptos Blood Bath as Exchanges Run Stops, An Early Christmas Present for Some? - 5th Dec 21
TESCO Pre Omicron Panic Christmas Decorations Festive Shop 2021 - 5th Dec 21
Dow Stock Market Trend Forecast Into Mid 2022 - 4th Dec 21
INVESTING LESSON - Give your Portfolio Some Breathing Space - 4th Dec 21
Don’t Get Yourself Into a Bull Trap With Gold - 4th Dec 21
GOLD HAS LOTS OF POTENTIAL DOWNSIDE - 4th Dec 21
4 Tips To Help You Take Better Care Of Your Personal Finances- 4th Dec 21
What Is A Golden Cross Pattern In Trading? - 4th Dec 21
Bitcoin Price TRIGGER for Accumulating Into Alt Coins for 2022 Price Explosion - Part 2 - 3rd Dec 21
Stock Market Major Turning Point Taking Place - 3rd Dec 21
The Masters of the Universe and Gold - 3rd Dec 21
This simple Stock Market mindset shift could help you make millions - 3rd Dec 21
Will the Glasgow Summit (COP26) Affect Energy Prices? - 3rd Dec 21
Peloton 35% CRASH a Lesson of What Happens When One Over Pays for a Loss Making Growth Stock - 1st Dec 21
Stock Market Sentiment Speaks: I Fear For Retirees For The Next 20 Years - 1st Dec 21 t
Will the Anointed Finanical Experts Get It Wrong Again? - 1st Dec 21
Main Differences Between the UK and Canadian Gaming Markets - 1st Dec 21

Market Oracle FREE Newsletter

How to Protect your Wealth by Investing in AI Tech Stocks

Global Money Supply

Economics / Money Supply Jul 31, 2007 - 12:48 PM GMT

By: Mike_Hewitt

Economics

This essay makes comparisons between the money supply of 26 selected economic areas and discusses the ratios between the value of official gold reserves to outstanding currency.

For the purposes of this essay, the Euro-Zone includes the thirteen countries that use the Euro currency: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain. All other economic areas are individual countries.


These 26 economic areas include 38 countries and make up 90.9% of the world's GDP and 64.8% of the world's population .

Monetary Aggregates for Selected Countries

The Bank of International Settlements (BIS) has a link on their webite which lists all of the central banks for different countries . The following charts use money supply data from these official websites. The link to the raw data is at each country's name.

There exists variability in the methodology for calculating different monetary aggregates. This makes cross-country comparisons difficult. Money is defined across a continuum from narrow money  that includes highly liquid forms of money (money as a means of exchange) to broad money  that covers less liquid forms of money (money as a store of value).

In general terms, M0 refers to outstanding currency (banknotes and coins) in circulation excluding vault cash. M1 is currency plus overnight (demand) deposits plus vault cash. M2 includes the sum of M1 and savings deposits (agreed maturity of up to two years or deposits redeemable at notice of up to three months). M3 is the sum of M2 and repurchase agreements, money market fund shares/units and debt securities up to two years.

Additionally, not every country publishes all four of the common monetary aggregates.

For instance, the Bank of England does not publish official numbers for M1, M2 or M3. For this article, estimates using European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) aggregates for the U.K. are used. These standards are based on those employed by the European Union.

Some countries, such as the U.S. do not officially publish M0. Where available, figures for outstanding currency in circulation were used. The U.S. Federal Reserve ceased publishing M3 on May 23, 2006 . However, various independent sources have continued to publish U.S. M3 figures and one such source is used here for U.S. M3 money supply.

The money supply levels for each country were converted into U.S. dollars on July 25, 2007 at the displayed exchange rates for ease of comparison. The last column shows the date at which the money supply data is taken from.

Name of Country M0 (US$bn) M1 (US$bn) M2 (US$bn) M3 (US$bn) Exchange (1USD = ) Date Taken
Australia 33.5 182.8 n/a 740.2 1.1329 AUD May-07
Brazil n/a 84.1 355.6 783.2 1.8695 BRL Dec-06
Canada 45.9 189.0 711.0 1052.9 1.0430 CAD May-07
China 362.4 1692.2 4818.1 n/a 7.5570 CNY May-07
Denmark 9.3 134.6 167.9 174.1 5.4230 DKK Apr-07
Euro-Zone 819.9 5165.9 9457.1 11128.3 0.7294 EUR May-07
Hong Kong 19.1 51.0 378.4 380.8 7.8238 HKD May-07
India 127.5 233.7 234.9 592.1 40.225 INR Apr-07
Indonesia 16.6 39.7 151.9 n/a 9098.0 IDR May-07
Japan 598.6 3253.6 6010.2 10021.4 120.36 JPY Jan-07
Korea 56.7 405.6 1256.0 1681.2 915.00 KRW May-07
Kuwait 2.7 15.3 62.2 n/a 0.2821 KWD May-07
Mexico 37.5 94.7 448.3 465.6 10.868 MXN May-07
Norway 7.6 116.9 214.5 n/a 5.8098 NOK Dec-06
Poland 33.7 99.6 175.7 180.7 2.7817 PLN May-07
Russia 113.6 n/a 419.6 466.1 25.508 RUB May-07
Saudi Arabia 17.6 87.9 154.3 185.1 3.7505 SAR May-07
Singapore 11.6 n/a n/a n/a 1.5113 SGD Mar-07
South Africa 7.2 93.7 173.0 209.5 6.9081 ZAR May-07
Sweden 14.5 184.2 225.5 269.9 6.7186 SEK Dec-05
Switzerland 31.8 222.5 374.5 503.7 1.2148 CHF Jun-07
Turkey 19.0 56.6 256.7 276.7 1.2585 TRY Dec-06
U.A.E. 4.8 28.4 88.2 113.1 3.6725 AED Jul-07
U.K. 96.9 1780.0 3029.8 3532.1 0.4876 GBP Dec-06
U.S. 756.0 1379.0 7229.0 12000 1.0000 USD Dec-06
Venezuela 6.0 36.6 55.8 55.8 2147.3 VEB May-07

 

M3 Money Supply for Selected Countries

When considering M3, the total money supply exceeds US$50.1 trillion! Of this amount, the U.S., Euro-Zone and Japan account for US$33.1 trillion or 66.2% of the total. The following graph shows a cross-country comparison for M3.

Global M3 Money Supply

Please note that the writer was unable to locate official M3 money supply values for China, Indonesia, Norway and Kuwait. For these countries, M2 figures were substituted for M3 in the above figure. As a result, these four countries are underestimated and the actual overall M3 is higher than US$50.1 trillion.

M3 Money Supply Growth for Selected Countries

Of the selected economic areas the annual increase of M3 ranges from 1.0% year over year for Japan to 69.3% for Venezuela! Higher growth rates for money supply do not translate to overall prosperity in the long run. If it did, humanity would have eliminated poverty long ago. Instead, what occurs is an inflationary boom followed by an recession. A hyperinflationary period may occur should confidence in the currency vanish. See a detailed list of failed currencies here .

Name of Country M0 (Y/Y%) M1 (Y/Y%) M2 (Y/Y%) M3 (Y/Y%) Date Taken
Australia 7.3 11.9 n/a 14.0 May-07
Brazil n/a 20.1 11.9 17.5 Dec-06
Canada 5.5 11.7 7.7 10.2 May-07
China 16.7 19.8 17.3 19.2 May-07
Denmark n/a 8.9 10.4 10.9 Apr-07
Euro-Zone n/a 6.1 9.4 10.7 May-07
Hong Kong 2.3 11.2 6.8 6.8 May-07
India 16.9 10.5 10.4 23.9 Apr-07
Indonesia 21.5 28.1 14.9 n/a May-07
Japan 1.3 (0.5) 1.5 1.0 Jan-07
Korea 19.9 11.7 12.5 10.5 May-07
Kuwait 3.1 13.6 18.0 n/a May-07
Mexico 13.7 10.2 11.4 11.5 May-07
Norway 2.7 22.2 14.3 n/a Dec-06
Poland 18.7 23.8 16.4 16.1 May-07
Russia 38.1 n/a 59.9 41.2 May-07
Saudi Arabia 5.2 11.0 18.4 17.9 May-07
Singapore 7.5 n/a n/a n/a Mar-07
South Africa 13.5 19.7 15.7 20.0 May-07
Sweden 1.6 11.2 13.3 15.7 Dec-05
Switzerland 2.3 (4.0) (5.8) 2.4 Jun-07
Turkey 6.2 5.8 16.8 15.2 Dec-06
U.A.E. 11.1 29.2 33.8 36.6 Jul-07
U.K. 4.5 10.5 15.6 15.8 Dec-06
U.S. 1.9 (0.6) 6.3 12.0 Dec-06
Venezuela 44.1 83.4 69.4 69.3 May-07

The overall annual M3 money supply growth for all areas covered in this essay is 10.6%. This is calculated by using the year-over-year M3 growth rate to calculate the total M3 level one year ago for each economic area. The total sum for these calculations arrives at a figure of US$45.3 trillion for one year ago.

Global M3 Money Supply Growth

M0 Money Supply for Selected Countries

The total for M0 and/or currency in circulation for the above 26 economic areas amounts to US$3.25 trillion. Using the same calculation as for determining overall M3 money supply growth we find that overall M0 and/or total amount of currency is increasing by 8.07% per annum.

Global M0 Money Supply or Outstanding Currency

The value for the top three currencies in circulation - the USD, Euro and Yen, comprise 66.9% of the total value of all currencies discussed here.

Comparison of Gold Reserves to Currency

According to the World Gold Council , at the end of 2006 the central banks of the 38 countries within these 26 economic areas held 23,938.7 tonnes of gold. This represents 89.0% of the gold held by all countries of the world.

As of July 25, 2007 the closing price for a troy ounce of gold was US$676.00. There are 32,150.75 troy ounces in a metric tonne. Thus, the value of the gold held by the 38 countries is US$520.3 billion. The total value of the currency issued by these countries - US$3.25 trillion - is over six times that figure! This suggests that, for the time being, the value of the official central bank gold reserves equals 15% of the value of their outstanding currency.

The following chart shows a ratio between the value of the official central bank gold reserves to the value of M0 and/or outstanding currency. Norway and United Arab Emirates have no official gold reserves. The 641.7 metric tonnes from the European Central Bank was added to the Euro-Zone, bringing the total for this economic area up to 11,210 metric tonnes as of June 2007. The writer was unable to find M0 money supply figures for Brazil which has a gold reserve of 13.7 metric tonnes.

Ratio of Official Central Bank Gold Reserves to Outstanding Currency

At the time of writing this article, the official gold reserves of Venezeula appears to out-value all of its outstanding currency by 30%. Given that the year-over-year growth rate of the Venezuelan bolivar for the last 12 months was in excess of 40%, one can expect this ratio to decline signicantly.

Switzerland seems to enjoy both low money supply growth rates along with a high relative value of official gold reserves. These two factors lend strong support to suggesting the Swiss franc as a safehaven currency. Although not as compelling, the Kuwaiti dinar is also worth consideration.

By Mike Hewitt
http://www.dollardaze.org

Mike Hewitt is the editor of www.DollarDaze.org , a website pertaining to commentary on the instability of the global fiat monetary system and investment strategies on mining companies.

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed above are not intended to be taken as investment advice. It is to be taken as opinion only and I encourage you to complete your own due diligence when making an investment decision.

Mike Hewitt Archive

© 2005-2019 http://www.MarketOracle.co.uk - The Market Oracle is a FREE Daily Financial Markets Analysis & Forecasting online publication.


Comments

Loren Howe
08 Apr 08, 19:02
Money Supply Data

Thank you so much for compiling this data! It is incredibly helpful and I couldn't find it anywhere else.


Post Comment

Only logged in users are allowed to post comments. Register/ Log in