Best of the Week
Most Popular
1. US Housing Market House Prices Bull Market Trend Current State - Nadeem_Walayat
2.Gold and Silver End of Week Technical, CoT and Fundamental Status - Gary_Tanashian
3.Stock Market Dow Trend Forecast - April Update - Nadeem_Walayat
4.When Will the Stock Market’s Rally Stop? - Troy_Bombardia
5.Russia and China Intend to Drain the West of Its Gold - MoneyMetals
6.BAIDU (BIDU) - Top 10 Artificial Intelligence Stocks Investing To Profit from AI Mega-trend - Nadeem_Walayat
7.Stop Feeding the Chinese Empire - ‘Belt and Road’ Trojan Horse - Richard_Mills
8.Stock Market US China Trade War Panic! Trend Forecast May 2019 Update - Nadeem_Walayat
9.US China Trade Impasse Threatens US Lithium, Rare Earth Imports - Richard_Mills
10.How to Invest in AI Stocks to Profit from the Machine Intelligence Mega-trend - Nadeem_Walayat
Last 7 days
US Dollar Gold Trend Analysis - 15th June 19
Gold Stocks “Launch” is in Line With Fundamentals - 15th June 19
The Rise of Silver and Major Economic Decline - 15th June 19
Fire Insurance Claims: What Are the Things a Fire Claim Adjuster Does? - 15th June 19
How To Find A Trustworthy Casino? - 15th June 19
Boris Johnson Vs Michael Gove Tory Leadership Grudge Match - Video - 14th June 19
Gold and Silver, Precious Metals: T-Minus 3 Seconds To Liftoff! - 14th June 19
Silver Investing Trend Analysis - Video - 14th June 19
The American Dream Is Alive and Well - in China - 14th June 19
Keeping the Online Gaming Industry in Line - 14th June 19
How Acquisitions Affect Global Stocks - 14th June 19
Please Don’t Buy the Dip in Nvidia or Other Chip Stocks - 14th June 19
A Big Thing in Investor Education is Explainer Videos - 14th June 19
IRAN - The Next American War - 13th June 19
Boris Johnson Vs Michael Gove Tory Leadership Grudge Match Contest - 13th June 19
Top Best VPN Services You Can Choose For Your iPhone - 13th June 19
Tory Leadership Contest Betting Markets Forecast - Betfair - 13th June 19
US Stock Market Setting Up A Pennant Formation - 13th June 19
Which Stocks Will Lead The Cannabis Rebound? - 13th June 19
The Privatization of US Indo-Pacific Vision - Project 2049, Armitage, Budget Ploys and Taiwan Nexus - 12th June 19
Gold Price Breaks to the Upside - 12th June 19
Top Publicly Traded Casino Company Stocks for 2019 - 12th June 19
Silver Investing Trend Analysis - 12th June 19
Why Blue-Chip Dividend Stocks Aren’t as Safe as You Think - 12th June 19
Technical Analysis Shows Aug/Sept Stock Market Top Pattern Should Form - 12th June 19
FTSE 100: A Top European Index - 12th June 19
Gold Surprise! - 11th June 19
How Forex Indicators are Getting Even More Attention in the Market? - 11th June 19
Stock Market Storm Clouds on the Horizon - 11th June 19
Is Your Financial Security Based On A Double Aberration? - 11th June 19
What If Stocks Are Wrong About Interest Rate Cuts? - 11th June 19
US House Prices Yield Curve, Debt, QE4EVER! - 11th June 19
Natural Gas Moves Into Basing Zone - 11th June 19
U.S. Dollar Stall is Good for Commodities - 11th June 19
Fed Running Out of Time and Conventional Weapons - 11th June 19
Trade Wars Propelling Stock Markets to New Highs - 11th June 19
Best Travel Bags for Summer Holidays 2019, Back Sling packs, water proof, money belt, tactical - 11th June 19
Betting on Next British Prime Minister Tory Leadership Betfair Markets Forecast - 10th June 19
How Can Stock Market Go Up When We’re Headed Towards a Recession? - 10th June 19
If You Invest in Dividend Stocks, Do This to Double Your Returns - 10th June 19
Reasons for the Success of the Dating Market - 10th June 19
Gold Price Trend Analysis - Video - 10th June 19
US Stock Markets Rally Hard – Could Another Big Upside Leg Begin? - 10th June 19
Stock Market Huge Cosmic Cluster Ahead: Buckle Up! - 10th June 19
Stock Market Higher To Go? - 10th June 19
The Gold Price Golden Neckline… - 10th June 19
Gold Price Seasonal Trend Analysis - 9th June 19
The Fed Stops Pretending - 9th June 19
Fed Rate Cuts Soon; Bitcoin Enthusiasts Join Wall Street in Bashing Gold - 9th June 19
1990s vs. 2010s - Which Expansion Will be Better for Gold? - 9th June 19
Gold Price Trend Analysis, MACD, Trend Channels, Support / Resistance - 8th June 19
Gold Surges Near Breakout - 8th June 19
Could Gold Rally Above $3750 Before December 2019? - 8th June 19
5 Big Lies About Precious Metals Investing Exposed - 8th June 19
ADL Predictive Modeling Suggests A Big Move In Silver - 7th June 19
US China Trade War Will Start a Recession, or Worse… - 7th June 19
Land Rover Discovery Sport Brake Pads Expected Life, Worn Pads Dash Warning - 7th June 19
The Post Room Selfies Fun at Meadowhall Sheffield, From Game of Thrones to Desert Island... - 7th June 19
SAMSUNG - South Korean Electronics Giant - Investing in AI Stocks - Video - 7th June 19
Gold Price Rally or New Bull Market? - 7th June 19
Digging into the Rising Gold: Trade Tensions, Recessionary Worries and Dovish Fed - 7th June 19
The Risky Stocks Big Lie That Keeps Many Investors Poor - 7th June 19
Gold and HUI Short-term Strength Is a Strong Call to Action - 7th June 19
Fear Drives Stock Market Expectations - 7th June 19 - Chris_Vermeulen
Next British Prime Minister Tory Leadership Betting Markets - 6th June 19

Market Oracle FREE Newsletter

Gold Price Trend Forecast Summer 2019

The Genesis of Over The Counter Interest Rate Derivatives

InvestorEducation / Derivatives Sep 25, 2007 - 06:43 PM GMT

By: Rob_Kirby

InvestorEducation

Best Financial Markets Analysis ArticleMisinformation regarding the origin and genesis of the OTC Interest Rate Derivatives complex abound in the market. 

During the 1970's – after President Nixon took the world off the gold standard - the dramatic increase in the price of crude oil led to burgeoning balances of petro dollars [Euro-dollars] in the treasuries of banks involved in international trade. This immediately led to banks bolstering their treasury operations to deal with the influx of ‘inflated dollars'.


In the beginning these petro-dollar balances were strictly lent or borrowed in the inter-bank market.

Interest Rate Derivatives were initiated by the establishment [around 1980] of the four 3-month IMM Eurodollar Futures Contracts [Dec, Mar, Jun, Sept] on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange [CME]. These contracts settled against 3 month libor [London Interbank Offered Rate] for Eurodollar Time Deposits on the third Wednesday of the contract month. The 3 month libor rate is ‘set' daily by a group of banks selected by the British Bankers Association and represents where these ‘reference banks' are willing to ‘loan' their mostly recycled Euro Dollar [petro-dollar] as 3 month time deposits. 

The advent of these 3 month Euro-dollar futures gave banks the ability to ‘hedge' or book profits on sizable amounts of predictable future cash flows emanating from ongoing business. But the business remained – while burgeoning – largely a cash trade.

In 1980, Canada revised it's Bank Act. In the ensuing few months, with the influx of foreign banks [dubbed schedule B banks] – Canada went from having 5 domestic banks to having roughly 65 banks. To protect their home turf, the existing domestic banking industry successfully lobbied the politicos to limit the amount of capital new ‘schedule B' banks could have [initially to 5 or 10 million]. This placed a straight jacket on foreign banks now operating in Canada; capital ceilings implied severe balance sheet restrictions. So a situation had developed where 60 new banks had just opened their doors – but were effectively frozen out [balance sheet limitations] of participating in ‘main stream' bank treasury operations [lending long – borrowing short - in the inter-bank market].

These treasury operations needed to find a raison d'etre [a road to profitability] in a hurry or their parent banks would shut them down.

Competition Breeds Innovation

To differentiate themselves from the rest of the crowd back in the early 1980's, institutions like Citibank, Toronto and Chemical Bank, Toronto went on a hiring binge of Ph D mathematician types and immersed themselves in ‘financial engineering' utilizing then emerging exchange traded futures [cited above].

It was Citibank, Toronto or Chemical Bank, Toronto who did the very first Inter-bank U.S. Dollar Interest Rate Derivative – known as an FRA [Future Rate Agreement] which, at its core – is nothing more than a glorified ‘bet' on what 3, 6 or 12 month libor will be at a future date. I know this because I was an institutional broker and Citibank, Toronto was my client. Soon after [or simultaneously] the first FRA's were done – Citibank Toronto had engineered a model to successfully book profits from interest rate swaps.

In the very beginning – these trades were ENORMOUSLY profitable – so much so that Citbank Toronto very quickly became – hands-down -the world's biggest OTC interest rate derivatives house and was, in fact, the clearing house for OTC interest rate derivatives for Citibank worldwide.

What this innovation allowed banks to do – was make the same bets on the interest rate curve as the cash players – without ever risking the principal AND it was all off balance sheet – therefore avoiding the balance sheet restrictions.

This business absolutely mushroomed!

Somewhere along the line – like the late 1980's – folks in New York took notice that they were losing their grip on the pulse of the money market and institutions like Citibank Toronto had their ‘books' repatriated back to New York. I watched all of this happen – first hand.

By this time, folks at institutions like J.P. Morgan and Bankers Trust [later merged/bailed out by Deutshe Bk.] realized that these products – utilized in sufficient size – could effectively give an institution control of interest rates.

And that where we are now.

You see folks – this is why J.P. Morgan Chase now sports an OTC derivatives book of over 70 TRILLION in notional. It's all about control.

By Rob Kirby
http://www.kirbya nalytics.com/

Rob Kirby is the editor of the Kirby Analytics Bi-weekly Online Newsletter, which provides proprietry Macroeconomic Research.

Many of Rob's published articles are archived at http://www.financialsense.com/fsu/editorials/kirby/archive.html , and edited by Mary Puplava of http://www.financialsense.com

Rob Kirby Archive

© 2005-2019 http://www.MarketOracle.co.uk - The Market Oracle is a FREE Daily Financial Markets Analysis & Forecasting online publication.


Post Comment

Only logged in users are allowed to post comments. Register/ Log in

6 Critical Money Making Rules